WECHSLER, DAVID (1896–1981), U.S. psychologist. Born in Lespedi, Romania, he was taken to the United States in 1902. He was chief psychologist, Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital (1932–66). He was also clinical professor of the NYU College of Medicine (1942). He was the originator of several widely used intelligence tests. Wechsler's greatest contribution was in the field of mental measurement. He demonstrated that there is a change and a differential decline with age in human abilities. His intelligence tests are based upon the concept of intelligence as being much more than the sheer ability to reason, deal with symbols, abstract, and conceptualize. He stressed that there were also volitional and non-intellective factors in intelligence. Thus his tests combining verbal and performance items were based on a non-hierarchical concept of intelligence, and the IQ was derived from the average of tested abilities in which equal credit was apportioned to subtests measuring abstract as well as concrete tasks. WAIS or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was prepared in such a way as to underemphasize speed of response and present items of interest to most adults. The use of his scales made it possible to make quantitative as well as qualitative observations of behavior and thought processes, and permitted, through pattern analysis, a diagnostic approach to intellectual deficiencies, organic brain disorders, schizophrenia, etc. These tests were adapted for use in many countries, and hundreds of publications describing and discussing them have appeared in almost all languages. He was the author of articles and of books on adult intelligence: The Measurement of Emotional Reactions (1925, includes bibl.); Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale (1939); Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (1949); The Range of Human Capacities (19552); Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (1955); The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence (19584); and Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence (1968). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Anastasi, Psychological Testing (19683). (Boris M. Levinson)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Wechsler, David — ▪ American psychologist born January 12, 1896, Lespedi, Romania died May 2, 1981, New York, New York, U.S.       American psychologist and inventor of several widely used intelligence tests (intelligence test) for adults and children.… …   Universalium

  • Векслер Дэвид / Wechsler, David — (1896 1981). Векслер направил всю свою творческую энергию на разработку и стандартизацию шкал интеллекта, которые носят его имя, и способствовал замене используемого в тестах Бинэ показателя «умственного возраста» на коэффициент отклонения… …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • David Wechsler — Born January 12, 1896 Lespezi, Romania Died May 12, 1981 Fields …   Wikipedia

  • Wechsler — David Wechsler David Wechsler (12 janvier 1896, Lespezi, Roumanie 2 mai 1981, New York) était un psychologue. Il a développé trois tests d intelligence normalisés couramment utilisés en Amérique du Nord : le Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale — Wechs·ler Adult Intelligence Scale weks lər n an updated version of the Wechsler Bellevue test having the same structure but standardized against a different population to more accurately reflect the general population abbr. WAIS Wechsler David… …   Medical dictionary

  • David Wechsler — (* 12. Januar 1896 in Lespezi, Kreis Iași, Rumänien; † 2. Mai 1981 in New York, USA) war ein US amerikanischer Psychologe rumänisch jüdischer Herkunft, der sich mit der Intelligenzmessung beschäftigte. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • David Wechsler — (Lespezi, 12 de enero, de 1896 2 de mayo, de 1981) fue un psicólogo norteamericano. Desarrolló escalas de inteligencia bien conocidas, como la Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) y la Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale — (WAIS) is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler Bellevue test (1939), a battery of tests that is composed from subtests Wechsler adopted from the Army Tests (Yerkes, 1921).Wechsler defined… …   Wikipedia

  • Wechsler — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: David Wechsler (1896–1981), US amerikanischer Psychologe Ernst Wechsler (1861–1893), Schriftsteller Herbert Wechsler (1909–2000), US amerikanischer Rechtswissenschaftler Lazar Wechsler (1896–1981),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wechsler — is a German word meaning exchanger (from , (ex)change ).Wechsler (or Wexler) may refer to: * Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale * Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children * Wexler (crater), a lunar impact crater * Mount Wexler, United… …   Wikipedia

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